Stem and leaf fiber plants covering kenaf and the like, ramie, abaca, sisal and mendong are potential commodities with a wide range of diversified products and in the future will have good prospect as raw material for pulp and paper industry. In addition, to anticipate the continued deterioration of the environment it is advisable to utilize the development of commodities capable of reducing air pollution, for example kenaf plants (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) able to absorb carbon dioxide (C02) in large quantities equivalent to the production of fiber. The need for kenaf fiber in 2006 was 10,000 tons, domestic production in 2005 was estimated at 8,000 tons. Ramie has an opportunity as a natural fiber supplement for the textile industry by contributing about 10%.

Kenaf

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) has long been cultivated in Indonesia and in 1986/1987 reached 26.000 ha spread in Lampung, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and South Kalimantan. Kenaf has the advantage of adapting widely to various land conditions and has a high tolerance for abiotic stress conditions such as waterlogging, drought, and low soil pH (sour). Kenaf is a short-day plant of 100-140 days old, developed by breeding.

Almost all parts of the plant can be used for various industrial raw materials. The kenaf leaf contains a crude protein of 24% very good for poultry and ruminants. Kenaf seeds contain 20% fat good for cooking oil because many contain unsaturated fatty acids (Oleat and Linoleat). Kenaf wood is very good as industrial raw material particle board for various purposes such as furniture, doors, windows, sills, home wallcoverings, etc. Kenaf fibers are widely used as raw materials for various industries such as fiber board, geo-textile, soil remediation, pulp and paper, textiles, carpets, handicrafts, etc. Fiber board from kenaf fiber is currently used as material for car interiors such as ceilings, doors, dashboards, etc. In addition, fiber board is also widely used in electronics industry for TV casing, radio, tape, etc. Also for housing as home wall coating, silencer, etc. Geo-textile, fibredrain is widely used by contractors on airport development, bridges, mining, etc. as a material for the prevention of landslide and groundwater absorption. Soil remediation using kenaf fiber is to improve soil fertility conditions especially in the former mining as a reclamation effort. Kenaf fibers are also used as supplementary materials in the manufacture of textiles that are braided with cotton and polyester fibers. The pulp from kenaf is used for the paper industry.

The development of kenaf plants is prioritized on bonorowo (flooded land) that is not suitable for other plants during floods. With the narrowing of the bonorowo area (due to the repair of irrigation networks), the kenaf plant began to be developed in the sour areas of East Kalimantan and dryland in Java. The development of kenaf plants is prioritized on limited irrigated rice fields and Podsolik Merah Kuning (PMK) fields. Obstacles faced for the development of these commodities are the low productivity at the farm level, and the difficulty of the absorption process.

The superior variety of kenaf that has been produced by Balittas is KR 11 for bonorowo land; KR 14 and KR 15 for Podsolik Merah Kuning (PMK) fields; and KR 9 and KR 12 for dry land. These varieties can be planted at any time because they are less affected by photoperiodicity. The development of kenaf is in Java (West, Central, East), Lampung, Riau, South Sulawesi, and Kalimantan (South, East, Central, and West).

The use of superior varieties of kenaf can increase farmer income up to 25-35%. In addition, the kenaf plant can be used to empower critical land, such as acid soils (PMK and peat). Kenaf can be planted intercropping with local corn or P7. The use of superior varieties of kenaf in areas with potential for development will result in production of 2-3 tonnes of fiber / year and increase farmer income by Rp2.000.000,00 per season.

Ramie

Ramie was originally developed in the highlands although ramie can also be developed in lowland areas, especially those with irrigation facilities. The constraint of the development of ramie is the length of the chain of the bonding process until it becomes spun ready fiber. This long process causes ramie not as a "cash crop", although the price of ramie fiber is higher than the price of cotton fiber. As one of the natural fiber producers, ramie is a commodity that needs to be developed. These commodities, in addition to producing high quality natural fibers, also have economically valuable side-effects, such as decomposition waste compost and ramie leaf for livestock feed mixture.

The new variety Ramindo 1, with its old name Pujon 10, has long been developed by farmers / entrepreneurs and has proven its superiority both in society and research results. Ramindo 1 provides high fiber productivity (2-2.7 tons / ha / year) with a good quality of fiber bags, and has a wide adaptability, so that the clones are suitable for development in low, medium to high.

Waste of decortication (absorption) can be processed into a very fine organic fertilizer with the content: Organic 20.13%; N total 2.15%; C / N ratio 3.01%; organic matter 34,83%; P2O5 1.47%; K2O 2.76%; CaO 3.73%; MgO 2.22%; S 0.13%; and KTK 65.56 me / 100 g of organic fertilizer. Composting technique can be done simply, that is by mixing bran, a little sugar sand, EM-4, and watered sufficiently. In addition, the rest of the decortation contains a lot of wood, and the fiber is good for raw materials of pulp / paper.

The ramie leaf (40% of fresh brangkasan weight) contains about 24% protein, excellent for livestock and poultry protein sources. Once processed into flour can be utilized for mixed concentrates of various fodder. Animal feed from ramie leaf contains about 10% water; 1.05-1.75% lysine; 0.14-0.73% methionine; and 0.18-0.31% of triptophan. In addition it contains carotene (provitamin A) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) 13.3 and 0.74 mg respectively 100 g of dry matter.

The use of superior varieties of Ramindo 1 with the provision of complete fertilizer packages (orga-nik, N, P, K and ZPT + PPC) can increase fiber yield up to 58-60%.

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Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute

Karangploso, PO.Box 199, Malang
East Java, Indonesia
balittas@litbang.pertanian.go.id
balittas.malang@gmail.com
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