Cotton

The prospect of cotton development is very strategic, especially to meet the needs of national textile industry and to reduce dependence on imports that need to be pursued through:

  1. Sharpening the potential area with technical interest in improving crop and land productivity;
  2. Optimizing the tecnology packages implementation;
  3. Otimizing the institutional and partnership function in encouraging farmers to implement their farms;
  4. Optimizing of funding support, and
  5. Filling and increasing market oportunities.

National Cotton Development up to 2025 is aimed at several targets, namely:

  1. Planting area of 300 thousand ha;
  2. 450,000 tons of cotton production is equivalent to about 150 thousand tons of cotton fiber; and
  3. Target production achievement is expected to contribute to ITPT about 30% of the current cotton raw material needs of about 500 tons per year.

One aspect of intensification is the superior variety, because the superior variety is the most technological component that easily adopted by farmers. Balittas has released 15 series of Indonesia Cotton (Kanesia) varieties; six of which were released in 2006/2007 were Kanesia 10, Kanesia 11, Kanesia 12, Kanesia 13, Kanesia 14, and Kanesia 15. Kanesia 8 is a cotton superior variety that has been used in the national cotton development with a production potential of 1.85-2.73 tons of seed cotton / ha and percent fiber 33.3-38.7%. The new varieties have a production potential of 17-22% higher than Kanesia 8, and moderate levels of resistance to one of the major pests of cotton, Amrasca biguttulla, and fiber quality are no different from Kanesia 8. Kanesia 14 and Kanesia 15 have a greater adaptability to water limitations than other varieties, so both varieties are more suitable for development in rain-fed areas.

The use of cotton-superior varieties in development with an estimated area of 10,000 hectares and with productivity at the farm level reaches 1.5 ton / ha (50-70% of production potential), the national cotton production will increase 9,000 tons of seed cotton or 3,000 tons of cotton fiber equivalent to US $ 4.2 million (with an average fiber price of US $ 1.4 / kg fiber). The benefits will increase further if the area of cotton is able to reach the national cotton development target of around 70,000 ha in 2010.

Kapok

Since 1928 until now Indonesia is still a kapok exporter country, but the number continues to decline. In 1936/1937 Indonesia was the largest exporter country in the world, amounting to 28,400 tonnes of fiber or about 85% of the world's kapok fiber needs. In 2003 the export of kapok fiber decreased to 1,496 tons of fiber. The decrease in kapok exports is partly due to the many of unproductive old kapok, cotton felling without offsetting rejuvenation, increased use of domestic kapok fiber, and competition with synthetic materials such as foam rubber. In addition, the decline in Indonesian cotton exports is due to competing with the less expensive prices with Thailand. To increase the export of kapok fiber, among others by increasing the productivity and still maintaining the quality of the kapok fiber.

The superior varieties that have been released by Balittas to support the development of kapok are Muktiharjo 1 (MH 1), Muktiharjo 2 (MH 2), and Karibea type Togo B released in 2006 which is suitable for monoculture farming, and Muktiharjo 3 (MH 3) and Muktiharjo 4 (MH 4) of the same type suitable for the reforestation and conservation program of land released in 2007.

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Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute

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East Java, Indonesia
balittas@litbang.pertanian.go.id
balittas.malang@gmail.com
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