In order to anticipate the fossil-based energy crisis that swept the world, it is necessary to find alternative sources of energy made from vegetable raw materials. The development of an alternative source of biofuel in the country is supported by Inpres No 1 of 2006 on "Provision and Utilization of Biofuels as another fuel" and Presidential Regulation No. 5 of 2006 on "National Energy Policy". Jatropha curcas is one of the commodities that can be used as a source of biofuel (BBN).

Sesame

Sesame plants are seasonal plants that are dry resistant, with harvesting age between 2.5-5.0 months. During its growth requires rainfall between 400-650 mm. It grows well at an altitude of 1-1.250 m above sea level, requiring high temperatures, dry air. Sesame has long been known and cultivated spread in all regions in Indonesia, especially in dry areas both in dry land in rainy season and in paddy fields after rice in the dry season. Sesame cultivation is relatively easy, the risk of failure is small, input is low, and can be intercropped with food crops or industrial crops, and is not desirable by mammals, such as monkeys, wild boars, or deer, so it is suitable for planting in forest areas.

In 1997, Balittas released two superior varieties of sesame, namely Sumberrejo 1 (Sbr 1) and Sumberrejo 2 (Sbr 2) based on Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 723 / Kpts / TP.240 / 7/97 dated 21 July 1997. Sbr 1 is still favored by farmers because it is able to be planted in dry land and paddy fields. In 2006, Balittas released two new superior varieties with the name of Sumberrejo 3 (Sbr 3) and Sumberrejo 4 (Sbr 4) varieties based on Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 113 / Kpts / SR.120 / 2/2007 and 114 / Kpts / SR.120 / 2/2007. Sbr 4 is preferred in paddy fields after paddy in MK-2 because of its early age. In addition, snack craftsmen prefer Sbr 4 seeds, because the size is smaller, so that in one kilogram the number more and more sticky.

Indonesia sesame development is increasing every year. In 2006 the sesame area reached 4,788 hectares, spread in Lampung (150 ha), Central Java (1,426 ha), Yogya-karta (250 ha), East Java (1,473 ha), West Nusa Tenggara (1,217 ha) and Sulawesi South (272 ha). The superior varieties of Sbr 1 are used in almost all (90%) of the development area. The superior varieties of Sbr 3 and Sbr 4 began to be used in 2007, especially in East Java and South Sulawesi. The production of sesame throughout the area reached at least 2,585.4 tons (average productivity of 600 kg / ha) or worth Rp6,000,000.00-Rp7,000,000.00 per hectare (the price at the end of 2007 Rp10.000,00-Rp12 $ 0.00 per kg; prices in June 2008 reached Rp22.000,00 per kg). When planted in intercropping with jarak kepyar, then the income of farmers could reach Rp10.225.000,00-Rp11.034.000,00 per hectare. Sesame farmers in East Java can produce sesame with an average productivity of 721 kg / ha, so that monoculture sesame farmer income reaches Rp8.220.000,00-Rp9.864.000,00 per hectare.

Jarak Kepyar

Jarak kepyar grow well on light soil, which is sandy clay, enough organic matter and have good drainage and aeration with pH 5-6,5. Jarak kepyar can not stand puddles even if only a few days, and it also can not stand on high salinity soil. This plant is tolerant to dry conditions so that it spreads in low rainfall area that is 300-700 mm / year with a height of 5-450 m above sea level.

Jarak kepyar is suitable to be developed in dry climates. The advantages of jarak plant, among others, can produce seeds in the dry season, when other plants are not able to grow, and adaptive to be intercropped with other plants such as sesame, green beans, or corn. Thus, jarak kepyar can increase farmers income during the dry season in dry areas. The superior varieties of jarak kepyar are Asb 22, Asb 60, and Asb 81. These three varieties are suitable for dry climates, each having a production potential of 2,500-3,200 kg / ha.

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infografis

Terbitan

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute

Karangploso, PO.Box 199, Malang
East Java, Indonesia
balittas@litbang.pertanian.go.id
balittas.malang@gmail.com
T:(0341) 491447
F:(0341) 485121
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