The annual tobacco plantation area reaches an average of 220,000 ha spread over North Sumatra, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Bali and West Nusa Tenggara. In general, tobacco is cultivated by small-scale farmers, only part of which is sought by state-owned enterprises and private companies. Local tobacco is generally cultivated by farmers, even in some development sites there is a partnership between farmers and tobacco companies, as the main consumers of local tobacco.

Tobacco have large contributions to farmers and state revenues. The farm and tobacco industry can support about 10 million people, including 4 million farmers, 600,000 workers in cigarette factories, 4.5 million people involved in the trade, and 900,000 people involved in transportation and advertising. Tobacco contributes state revenues in the form of excise taxes of up to 52 trillion rupiah (2007), and foreign exchange from tobacco exports amounts to 1.9 trillion rupiah.


As an industry that includes ten priority industries, the cigarette industry in Indonesia uses local tobacco raw materials of 80%. Local varieties of local tobacco produced by ISFCRI are Madura tobacco varieties with low nicotine, Temanggung tobacco, Yogyakarta tobacco, Boyolali tobacco, and Kasturi tobacco.

Castor Oil Plants grow well on light soil, which is sandy clay, contain enough organic material also have good drainage and aeration with pH 5-6.5. Castor oil plant is not resistant to flooded area even only a few days, also can not stand on soil with high salinity. This plant is tolerant to dry conditions so that it spreads in low rainfall area of ​​300 - 700 mm / year with a height of 5 - 450 m above sea level.

Castor oil plant is a suitable plant in dry climates. The plant excellence, among others, can produce seeds in dry season, when other plants are not able to grow, and adaptive intercropped with other plants such as sesame, green beans, or maize. Thus, castor oil plants can increase farmers income during dry season in dry areas. The superior varieties of castor oil plants are Asb 22, Asb 60, and Asb 81. These three varieties are suitable for dry climate areas, each has production potential of 2,500 - 3,200 kg / ha.

One of the renewable energy sources is Jatropha. Jatropha curcas L which can be processed into bio diesel. The development of Jatropha is expected to create an employment opportunities, grow agro-industry in rural areas, increase empty lands cultivation that will increase farmers income and reduce carbon monoxide emissions (Kyoto-protocol).

The development of Jatropha must be supported by the availability of quality plant material. The recurrent selection of IP2-A population in Asembagus, Situbondo, East Java, with the production standard of 500 capsules / plant / year in year I, has produced IP3-A with an estimated productivity of 2.2-2.5 tonnes of dry beans / ha in the year-I.

In optimal rainfall conditions (1200-1500 mm / year) and adequate nutrient availability, the IP3-A population is capable of producing 5-6 ton / ha in III-year or 8-9 ton / ha in the IV-year to 30-year-old plants. Oil content ranges from 33-36% which varies according to harvest season. Jatropha can be harvested twice a year; but particularly vulnerable in dryland with less than 500 mm / year rainfall or wetlands with rainfall above 2500 mm / year. Flowering jatropha crop is very sensitive to high intensity rain

As a textile producing country No. 5 in the world, the export volume of Indonesia's textile and textile industry (TPT) in 2005 reached US $ 8.59 billion and absorbed 1.7 million workers, excluding the labor absorbed in agriculture and trade. Cotton fiber is the main raw material of textile industry. The demand for cotton fiber in 2004/2005 is around 510 thousand tons, which is predicted to increase to 688 thousand tons in 2010. Domestic cotton fiber production is only around 1,600 - 2,500 thousand tons or less than 0.5% of national demand. Until 2025, cotton agribusiness is expected to contribute to textile industry about 30% of the current cotton raw material needs. The challenges faced by Indonesia cotton development are complex, starting from the unavailability of quality seeds to the scarcity of farmers capital. The availability of natural resources, especially dry land, is quite extensive outside Java, such as South Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara, and East Nusa Tenggara that provide opportunities for national cotton development. Therefore, cotton commodity is one of the priority commodities to be developed to support plantation revitalization.

One aspect of intensification is superior variety, because superior variety is the most technological component that is easily adopted by farmers. ISFCRI has released 15 series of Indonesian Cotton Varieties (Kanesia); six of which were released in 2006/2007 i.e. Kanesia 10, Kanesia 11, Kanesia 12, Kanesia 13, Kanesia 14 and Kanesia 15. Kanesia 8 is a cotton superior variety that has been used in national cotton development with a production potential of 1.85â - 2 , 73 tons of seeded cotton/ha and fiber quality of 33.3 - 38.7%. The new varieties have a production potential of 17 - 22% higher than Kanesia 8, and moderate resistance levels to one of the major cotton pests, Amrasca biguttulla, and fiber quality which is no different with Kanesia 8. Kanesia 14 and Kanesia 15 have a greater adaptability to water limitations than other varieties, so both varieties are more suitable to be developed in rainfed areas.

Cotton-superior varieties development in an estimated area of 10,000 hectares and with productivity at farmer level reaches 1.5 ton / ha (50% to 70% of production potential), then the national cotton production will increase 9,000 tonnes of cotton seed or 3,000 tons of cotton fiber equivalent to US $ 4.2 million (with an average fiber price of US $ 1.4 / kg fiber). The benefits will increase even higher if the area of cotton is able to reach the national cotton development target of around 70,000 ha in 2010.

Since 1928 until now Indonesia is still a cotton exporter country, but the number continues to decline. In 1936/1937 Indonesia was the world's largest exporter, amounting to 28,400 tonnes fiber or about 85% of the world's kapok fiber requirement. In 2003 the export of kapok fiber decreased to 1,496 tons fiber. Decrease in kapok exports is partly due to the many unproductive old kapok, kapok felling without offsetting rejuvenation, increased use of domestic kapok fiber, and competition with synthetic materials such as foam rubber. In addition, the decline in Indonesian kapok exports is due to competing with the less expensive prices of Thailand kapok. To increase the export of kapok fiber, among others by increasing productivity and still maintaining good quality kapok fiber. The superior varieties that have been released by ISFCRI to support the development of kapok are Muktiharjo 1 (MH 1), Muktiharjo 2 (MH 2), and Togo B of Karibea type released in 2006 and suitable for monoculture farming, and Muktiharjo 3 (MH 3) and Muktiharjo 4 (MH 4) of the same type suitable for reforestation and land conservation programs released in 2007.

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L) has long been cultivated in Indonesia and in 1986/1987 reached 26,000 ha spread in Lampung, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and South Kalimantan. Kenaf has the advantage of adapting widely to various land conditions and has a high tolerance for abiotic stress conditions such as flooded, drought, and low soil pH (sour). Kenaf is a short day plant of 100 - 140 days, developed with seed.

Almost all parts of the plant can be used for various industrial raw materials. The kenaf leaf contains a crude protein of 24% very good for poultry and ruminants. Kenaf seeds contain 20% fat, good to use as cooking oil because contain many unsaturated fatty acids (Oleat and Linoleat). Kenaf wood is very good as industrial particle board raw material for various purposes such as furniture, doors, windows, sills, wall coverings, etc. Kenaf fibers are widely used as raw materials for various industries such as fiber board, geo-textile, soil remediation, pulp and paper, textiles, carpets, handicrafts, etc. Fiber board from kenaf fiber is currently used as material for car interiors such as ceiling, door, dashboard, etc. In addition, fiber board is also widely used in electronics industry for TV casing, radio, tape, etc. Also for housing as home wall coating, silencer, etc. Geotextile, fibredrain is widely used by contractors on airport development, bridges, mining, etc. As material for landslide prevention and groundwater absorption. Soil remediation using kenaf fiber is to improve soil fertility conditions, especially in ex-mining as a reclamation effort. Kenaf fibers are also used as supplementary materials in the manufacture of textiles that are braided with cotton and polyester fibers. The pulp from kenaf is used for paper industry.

The development of kenaf plants is prioritized on bonorowo (flooded) land that is not suitable for other plants during floods. With the narrowing of bonorowo area (due to the irrigation networks restoration), the kenaf plant began to be developed in the acid soils area of East Kalimantan and dryland in Java. The development of kenaf plants is prioritized on limited irrigated rice fields and red yellow podzolic fields (PMK). Constraints faced for the development of these commodities are the low productivity at farm level, and the difficulty of the absorption process.

The superior variety of kenaf that has been produced by ISFCRI are KR 11 for bonorowo land; KR 14 and KR 15 for red yellow podzolic fields (PMK); and KR 9 and KR 12 for dry land. The varieties can be planted at any time because they are less affected by photoperiodicity. The development of kenaf is in Java (West, Central, East), Lampung, Riau, South Sulawesi, and Kalimantan (South, East, Central, and West).

The use of kenaf superior varieties can increase farmer income up to 25 - 35%. In addition, the kenaf plant can be used to empower critical land, such as acid soils (FMD and peat). Kenaf can be planted by intercropping with local maize or P7. The use of kenaf superior varieties in areas with development potential will produce 2 - 3 tonnes of fiber / year and increase farmer income by Rp2.000.000,00 per season.

Sugar Cane Varieties

Sugar cane is the main commodity that can be used as raw material of sugar. In order to meet national sugar demand, the acceleration of sugar production increase is designed in three stages of the target approach :

  1. Adequacy of sugar requirement for public consumption (2006-2009),
  2. The fulfillment of sugar demand for consumption and industry (2010-2014), and
  3. Development of by-products based on sugarcane raw materials (2015-2025).

To strengthen the goal achievement of fulfilling the need for consumption and industry, it is necessary to implement intensification program to increase sugar production and rendemen. The extensification program for sugar cane development requires an area of 430,000 hat and this needs to be supported by mapping the appropriate areas and superior varieties.

Ramie was originally developed in the highlands although ramie can also be developed in lowland areas, especially those with irrigation facilities. Ramie developmental constraints is the chain process length until it becomes spun ready fiber. This long process causes ramie not as a cash crop, although the price of ramie fiber is higher than the price of cotton fiber. As one of the natural fiber producers, ramie is a commodity that needs to be developed. These commodities, in addition to producing high quality natural fibers, also have economically valuable side-effects, such as decortication waste compost and ramie leaf for livestock feed mix.

The new variety Ramindo 1, with its old name Pujon 10, has long been developed by farmers / entrepreneurs and has proven its superiority both in society and research results. Ramindo 1 provides high fiber productivity (2 - 2.7 ton / ha / year) with good fiber quality, and has a wide adaptability, so that clones are suitable for development in low, medium to high.

Decortication waste (sealing) can be processed into a very fine organic fertilizer containing : Organic 20.13%; N total 2.15%; C / N ratio 3.01%; organic matter 34,83%; P2O5 1.47%; K2O 2.76%; CaO 3.73%; MgO 2.22%; S 0.13%; and KTK 65.56 me / 100 g of organic fertilizer. Composting can be done using a simple technique, by mixing bran, a little sugar sand, EM-4, and watered sufficiently. In addition, the waste of decortication contains a lot of wood, and the fiber is good for raw materials of pulp / paper.

Ramie leaf (40% of fresh stover weight) contains about 24% protein, excellent for livestock and poultry protein sources. Once processed into flour can be utilized for mixed concentrates of various fodder. Animal feed from ramie leaf contains about 10% water; 1.05 - 1.75% lysine; 0.14 - 0.73% methionine; and 0.18 - 0.31% triptophan. In addition it contains carotene (provitamin A) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) respectively 13.3 and 0.74 mg for every 100 g of dry matter.

The use of superior varieties of Ramindo 1 with the provision of complete fertilizer packages (organic, N, P, K and ZPT + PPC) can increase fiber yield up to 58 - 60%.

Sesame plants are seasonal plants that are resistant to dry, with harvest age between 2.5 - 5.0 months. During growth rainfall required between 400 - 650 mm. It grows well at a height of 1 - 1,250m above sea level, requiring high temperature, dry air. Sesame has long been known and cultivated spread in all regions in Indonesia, especially in dry areas both on dry land in rainy season and in paddy fields after rice in dry season. Sesame cultivation is relatively easy, the risk of failure is small, risk of failure is low, and can be intercropped with food crops or industrial crops, and is not desirable by mammals, such as monkeys, wild boars, or deer, so it is suitable for planting in forest areas. In 1997, ISFCRI released two superior varieties of sesame, namely Sumberrejo 1 (Sbr 1) and Sumberrejo 2 (Sbr 2) based on Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 723 / Kpts / TP.240 / 7/97 dated 21 July 1997. Sbr 1 is still favored by farmers because it is able to be planted in dry land and paddy fields. In 2006, ISFCRI released two new improved varieties with the name of Sumberrejo 3 (Sbr 3) and Sumberrejo 4 (Sbr 4) varieties based on Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 113 / Kpts / SR.120 / 2/2007 and 114 / Kpts / SR.120 / 2/2007. Sbr 4 is preferred in paddy fields after paddy in MK-2 because of its early age. In addition, snack craftsmen prefer Sbr 4 seeds, because the size is smaller, so that in one kilogram the number is more and more sticky. The development of sesame in Indonesia is increasing every year. In 2006 the sesame area reached 4,788 hectares, spread in Lampung (150 ha), Central Java (1,426 ha), Yogyakarta (250 ha), East Java (1,473 ha), West Nusa Tenggara (1.217 ha), and South Sulawesi 272 ha). The superior varieties of Sbr 1 are used in almost all (90%) of the development area. Superior varieties Sbr 3 and Sbr 4 began to be used in 2007, especially in East Java and South Sulawesi. The production of sesame throughout the area reached at least 2,585.4 tons (average productivity of 600 kg / ha) or equivalent to Rp6,000,000,00 - Rp7,000,000.00 per hectare (the price at the end of 2007 Rp10.000,00 - Rp12.000,00 per kg, the price in June 2008 reached Rp22.000,00 per kg). When planted in intercropping with castor oil plant (jarak kepyar), then the income of farmers is Rp10.225.000,00 - Rp11.034.000,00 per hectare. Sesame farmers in East Java can produce sesame with an average productivity of 721 kg / ha, so that monoculture sesame farmer income reaches Rp8.220.000,00 - Rp9.864.000,00 per hectare.


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Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute

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East Java, Indonesia
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2020-10-21 04:34:03
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