Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L) has long been cultivated in Indonesia and in 1986/1987 reached 26,000 ha spread in Lampung, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and South Kalimantan. Kenaf has the advantage of adapting widely to various land conditions and has a high tolerance for abiotic stress conditions such as flooded, drought, and low soil pH (sour). Kenaf is a short day plant of 100 - 140 days, developed with seed.

Almost all parts of the plant can be used for various industrial raw materials. The kenaf leaf contains a crude protein of 24% very good for poultry and ruminants. Kenaf seeds contain 20% fat, good to use as cooking oil because contain many unsaturated fatty acids (Oleat and Linoleat). Kenaf wood is very good as industrial particle board raw material for various purposes such as furniture, doors, windows, sills, wall coverings, etc. Kenaf fibers are widely used as raw materials for various industries such as fiber board, geo-textile, soil remediation, pulp and paper, textiles, carpets, handicrafts, etc. Fiber board from kenaf fiber is currently used as material for car interiors such as ceiling, door, dashboard, etc. In addition, fiber board is also widely used in electronics industry for TV casing, radio, tape, etc. Also for housing as home wall coating, silencer, etc. Geotextile, fibredrain is widely used by contractors on airport development, bridges, mining, etc. As material for landslide prevention and groundwater absorption. Soil remediation using kenaf fiber is to improve soil fertility conditions, especially in ex-mining as a reclamation effort. Kenaf fibers are also used as supplementary materials in the manufacture of textiles that are braided with cotton and polyester fibers. The pulp from kenaf is used for paper industry.

The development of kenaf plants is prioritized on bonorowo (flooded) land that is not suitable for other plants during floods. With the narrowing of bonorowo area (due to the irrigation networks restoration), the kenaf plant began to be developed in the acid soils area of East Kalimantan and dryland in Java. The development of kenaf plants is prioritized on limited irrigated rice fields and red yellow podzolic fields (PMK). Constraints faced for the development of these commodities are the low productivity at farm level, and the difficulty of the absorption process.

The superior variety of kenaf that has been produced by ISFCRI are KR 11 for bonorowo land; KR 14 and KR 15 for red yellow podzolic fields (PMK); and KR 9 and KR 12 for dry land. The varieties can be planted at any time because they are less affected by photoperiodicity. The development of kenaf is in Java (West, Central, East), Lampung, Riau, South Sulawesi, and Kalimantan (South, East, Central, and West).

The use of kenaf superior varieties can increase farmer income up to 25 - 35%. In addition, the kenaf plant can be used to empower critical land, such as acid soils (FMD and peat). Kenaf can be planted by intercropping with local maize or P7. The use of kenaf superior varieties in areas with development potential will produce 2 - 3 tonnes of fiber / year and increase farmer income by Rp2.000.000,00 per season.

Although kenaf includes in short day crops, but Balittas has produced superior varieties that are less sensitive to photoperiode that is KR 11, so that KR 11 varieties can be planted at any time provided the water requirement is met during its growth period. KR 11 is the result of a crossing of Hc 48 x Hc G4 in 1985. This variety was released in 2001 by the Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 111/Kpts/TP.240/2/2001, dated February 8, 2001.

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KR 11 Variety Characteristic

Stalk Surface : Little bit thorny
Stalk Color
: Green
Branching
: has many Rudimenter
Leaf Shape
: Finger like
Flowering age
: 87-95 days
Flower Color
: Yellowish Creme
Harvesting age
: 130-140 days
Plant Height
: 278-420 cm
Stalk Diameter
: 1,60-3,20 cm
Production Potential
: 2,75-4,20 ton/ha
100 seed weight
: 23,66-26,24 gram
Fiber Length
: 260-376 cm
Fiber Power
: 24,46-29,60 g/tex
Fiber Percentage
: 5,5-6,5%

In order to increase kenaf's competitiveness, the development of kenaf in Indonesia is directed to a less potential land, one of which is in red yellow podsolic field (PMK). PMK land is generally a dry land that has properties such as: low pH, nutrient deficiency, and high Al and Fe content. PMK land in Kalimantan is widely available which has the potential to develop kenaf. The empowerment of PMK in Kalimantan for the development of kenaf in addition to meeting the domestic kenaf fiber will also have an impact on the increase of farmers' incomes and local revenues. To support the development of kenaf in Balittas PMK field has produced two superior varieties that have been released based on Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 133/Kpts/SR.120/2/2007 and 134/Kpts/SR.120/2/2007 as new varieties namely Karangploso 14 (KR 14) and Karangploso 15 (KR 15).

KR 14 Variety Characteristic

Stalk Surface : Little bit thorny
Stalk Color
: Redness green
Branching
: Rudimenter 
Leaf Shape
: Finger like and have a deep incision
Flowering Age
: 75-90 days
Flower Color
: Creamy Yellow
Harvesting Age
: 120-140 days 
Plant Height
: 270-425 cm
Stalk Diameter
: 1,60-3,10 cm
Productivity Potential
: 2,75-4,50 ton/ha
100 seed Weight
: 22,10-26,30 gram
Fiber Length
: 260-375 cm
Fiber Power
: 22,19-28,89 g/tex
Fiber Percentage
: 5-7%

In order to increase kenaf's competitiveness, the development of kenaf in Indonesia is directed to a less potential land, one of which is in red yellow podsolic field (PMK). PMK land is generally a dry land that has properties such as: low pH, nutrient deficiency, and high Al and Fe content. PMK land in Kalimantan is widely available which has the potential to develop kenaf. The empowerment of PMK in Kalimantan for the development of kenaf in addition to meeting the domestic kenaf fiber will also have an impact on the increase of farmers' incomes and local revenues. To support the development of kenaf in Balittas PMK field has produced two superior varieties that have been released based on Minister of Agriculture Decree No. 133/Kpts/SR.120/2/2007 and 134/Kpts/SR.120/2/2007 as new varieties namely Karangploso 14 (KR 14) and Karangploso 15 (KR 15).


KR 15 Variety Characteristic

Stalk Surface
: Litle bit thorny
Stalk Color
: Green 
Branching
: Has Many Rudimenter 
Leaf Shape
: Finger like and deep incision
Flwering Age
: 75-85 days
Flower Color
: Creamy yellow
Harvesting Age
: 120-130 days 
Plant Height
: 265-415 cm
Stalk Diameter
: 1,50-3,00 cm
Productivity Potential
: 2,5-4,5 ton/ha
100 Seed Weight
: 21,16-26,50 gram
Fiber Length
: 255-370 cm
Fiber Power
: 22,96-29,36 g/tex
Fiber Percentage
: 5-7%

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Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute

Karangploso, PO.Box 199, Malang
East Java, Indonesia
balittas@litbang.pertanian.go.id
balittas.malang@gmail.com
T:(0341) 491447
F:(0341) 485121
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