Volume 9 Number 1 April 2017

The Effect of Media Composition on The Induction of Shoot and Roots and of Five Agave Clones on In Vitro Culture

Aprilia Ridhawati, Tantri Dyah Ayu Anggraeni, Rully Dyah Purwati

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199 Malang
E-mail: ridaalia17(at)gmail.com

Accepted : December 21 2016; revised : March 23 2017; approved : March 29 2017

Abstract

Agave (Agave sisalana Perrine) is a plant that producenaturalfibre. Agave cultivation for commercial use is still limited by the availability of good plant materials. In vitro culture technique can produce  a large amount of plant material with same quality in relatively short time. The study aimed to obtain a suitable medium composition for in vitro shoot multiplication and root induction for five agave genotypes. The experiment was conducted from July 2015 to June 2016 in Tissue Culture Laboratory of Indonesian Sweetener and Fibre Crops Research Institute. Explant source derived from aseptic shoot of agave genotypesBalittas 10, 12, 13, 14, andH-11648 in in vitro ISFCRI germplasm collection. The experiment was arranged in factorial complete random design (two factors: media composition, genotype, and  three replication). Shoot induction media: M1 (MS + BAP 0.5 mg/l + IBA 0.5 mg/l); M2 (MS + BAP 1 mg/l + IBA 0.5 mg/l);and M3 (MS + BAP 1.5 mg/l + IBA 0.5 mg/l). Root induction media: M1 (MS + active carbon(AC) 2 g/l); M2 (MS + AC2 g/l + IBA 0,5 mg/l); M3 (MS + AC 2 g/l + IBA 1 g/l); M4 (MS + AC 2 g/l + NAA 0,5 mg/l);and M5 (MS + AC 2 g/l + NAA 1 mg/l). The results showed that the shoot induction media compositions were not differ significantly on shoot numbers (1.09–1.33) and time for shoot induction (4 weeks). The best composition medium of root induction was M4 (MS + AC 2 g/l + NAA 0.5 mg/l), that yielded 4.53 root numbers. Balittas 14 genotype yielded the highest shoot and root numbers (1,56 shoot numbers and 4.59 root numbers).


N2O Emissions from Rainfed Sugarcane Plantation

Anggri Hervani, Rina Kartikawati, Miranti Ariani, Prihasto Setyanto

Agriculture Research Institute
Jakenan-Jaken km 05, Pati, Central Jave
Email: anggrihervani(at)yahoo.com

Accepted : 31 March 2016; revised: 16 December 2016; approved : 9 April 2017

Abstract

Expansion of sugarcane areal to support enhancement production and fulfilment target of self-sufficiency for national sugar should be conducted to see environment impact, particularly related to greenhouse gases emission. The objective of this study was to figure out N2O emission from conventional sugarcane plantation by farmer in rainfed area. The observation of N2O gas was carried out in sugarcane plantation in Sidomukti Village, Jaken District, Pati, Central Java. Sampling of N2O gas was conducted by close chamber method. The study showed that maximum fluxes of sugarcane plantation before and after fertilizer application are 4.011 and 223 µg N2O m-2 day-1. Meanwhile, after fertilizer application the maximum and minimum fluxes of N2O are 6.408 and 25 µg N2O m -2 day-1. N2O emission from sugarcane plantation recorded in rainfed area as 4.21 ± 2.53 kg N2O ha-1 year-1 with potential of global warming number as 1.31 ton CO2-e per hectar per year.


Performance of Morphological, Stomata, and Chlorophyll Characters of Six Tulungagung Local Tobacco Variety

Fatkhur Rochman, Ruly Hamida

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199 Malang, Indonesia
E-mail: frochman10(at)gmail.com

Accepted  : May 27 2016; revised : June 16 2017; approved : June 19 2017

Abstract

Tulungagung tobacco is one type of tobacco that has an important role in the cigarette industry in Indonesia. Some varieties of tobacco have been cultivated in Tulungagung, but the heterogeneity degree of the plant is quite high, so that the information of diversity of morphology, stomata and chlorophyll can be utilized to carry out the assembly of new varieties with productivity in accordance to customer needs. The aim of research is study  the morphological properties, stomata, chlorophyll content, and crop productivity. This research was conducted in the village of Kendalbulur, District Boyolangu, Tulungagung, from April to October 2015. The research material consisted of six varieties of tobacco has long been developing in Tulungagung, ie Rejeb Arang, Rejeb Kerep, Gagang Sidi, Gagang Jembrak, Gagang Ijo, and Rejeb Jae. Each variety was grown on plots sized 12 m x 4.50 m with plant spacing of 60 cm x 90 cm (100 plants/plot). This study used a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that six varieties of tobacco studied have varying morphology. Varieties Rejeb charcoal has the highest value on plant height, leaf number, and leaf length, so that could support the productivity of the plant. Stomata type of Rejeb Arang is Amphibraci-parasitic, Rejeb Kereb and Rejeb Jae are Diasitic, Gagang Sidi and Gadang Ijo are Anisositic; Gagang Jembrak is Laerositik. The highest chlorophyll content was in Rejeb Arang varieties (34.85 units).


Effectiveness of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) on Cigar Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by Carna-5 (Cucumber Mosaic Virus Associate RNA-5) Vaccine

Cece Suhara, Titiek Yulianti

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199 Malang
E-mail: soehara64(at)gmail.com

Accepted : April 7 2017; revised : June 16 2017; approved : July 28 2017

Abstract

Mosaic disease caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) causes losses in tobacco leaf production and quality. Chemical method vaccine to control CMV. The study has been conducted in Field Experimental Station for Phytopathology of  Indonesian Sweetener and Fibre Crops Research Institute from June–November 2011. There were two factors arranged in Factorial Completely randomized with three replicates.  First factor was vaccine aplication method, ie: A1 : Using a compressor and sprayer; A2 : Using an automatic sprayer.  The second factor is six levels of vaccine concentration ie.: (1) D1 : without vaccine + plant was not inoculated by CMV; (2) D2 : without vaccine and plant was inoculated by CMV; (3) D3 : vaccinated with 10% Carna-5 + plant was not inoculated by CMV; (4) D4 : vaccinated with 5% Carna-5 + plant was inoculated by CMV; (5) D5 : vaccinated with 10% Carna-5 + plant was inoculated by CMV; dan (6) D: vaccinated with 15% + plant was inoculated by CMV.  Results showed that application methods of Carna-5 did not significantly affect all parameter of observations. Carna-5 did not affect the growth of tobacco plant, but suppressed disease incidence and disease severity caused by CMV.  Concentration of 15% was also gave highest productive leaf. The highest inhibition (64,69%) was caused by vaccine 15 g/100 ml BF.


The Influence of Granular and Briquette Compound Fertilizers on Growth, Productivity, and Sugar Content of Sugarcane

Supriyadi, Nunik Eka Diana, Djumali

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199 Malang
E-mail: priagung90(at)ymail.com

Abstract

Intensification program of sugarcane in order to increase production and sugar crystal can be done with the addition of soil nutrient through fertilizer application. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of NPK compound fertilizer (22% N:12% P2O5:12% K2O) in the form of granular and briquettes to growth, productivity, and sugar content. The research was conducted on November 2012–October 2013 at Kalipare Experiment Station, Malang. The treatments include (1) 600 kg/ha granule NPK (G1), (2) 700 kg/ha granule NPK (G2), (3) 800 kg/ha granule NPK (G3), (4) 1,000 kg/ha NPK granule (G6) + 300 kg/ha NPK granule (G5) + 300 kg/ha Ammonium Sulphate (US), (6) 700 kg/ha NPK granule (G6) + 300 kg / ha US, (7) 800 kg / ha NPK granule (G7) + 300 kg / ha US, (8) 1,000 kg / ha granule NPK (G8) + 300 kg/ha US, (9) 600 kg/ha NPK briquettes (B1), (10) 700 kg/ha NPK briquettes (B3), (12) 1.000 kg/ha NPK briquettes (B4), (13) 600 kg/ha NPK briquettes (B5) + 300 kg/ha US, (14) 700 kg/ha NPK briquette (B6) + 300 kg/ha US, (15) 800 kg/ha NPK briquette (B7) + 300 kg/ha US, (16) 1,000 kg/ha NPK briquettes (B8) + 300 kg/ha US, (17) 600 kg/ha (N15, P15, K15) + 500 kg/ha AS (famer’s application). The experiment was arranged design in randomized block design and repeated three times. The results showed that treatments B8, B6, B7, and G8 resulted in higher growth, productivity, and sugar production compared to farmer’s application. The treatment of B6 is the most efficient in increasing productivity (22.29 ton/ha), sugar production (2.03 ton/ha), and net profit (Rp11,013,120/ha).

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Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute

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East Java, Indonesia
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