Volume 8, Number 2, Oktober 2016

Efficacy of Meristem Culture and Chemotherapy for Elimination of Sugarcane Streak Mosaic Virus (SCSMV) on Sugarcane

Ika Roostika1, Sedyo Harsono2, Darda Efendi3, Deden Sukmadjaja1,dan Cece Suhara4

1Indonesian Center forAgricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development
2Agriculture Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta
3Agriculture Faculty of Bogor Agriculture Institute, Bogor
4Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
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Accepted : January 6 2016; revised : July 15 2016; approved : August 3 2016


The use of virus-free seedling is an option for controlling viral disease that can be obtained through the application of viral elimination method. Plant tissues can be eliminated from virus infection by applying virus thermotherapy, chemotherapy, meristem culture, and cryotherapy. There search objectives were to examine the response of sugarcane varieties to meristem culture treatments and antiviral agent and also to determine the efficacy rate of both techniques in eliminating SCSMV disease.The study was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Develpoment, and also at Virology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. This study consisted of three activities: 1) Virus detection ofthe mother plants, 2) Application of meristem culture and chemotherapy, and 3) Virus indexing. The plant material used was eleven varieties of sugarcane (GMP3, PS865, and Kentung from Bogor, PS862 and Cening from Cirebon, PS881 from Jember, Malang PSJK922 origin, as well as the PS864, PS881, PSJK922, PSJT941 from Pati). Virus detection was performed by RT-PCR assay with universal primer of MJ and specific primers of SCSMV. Antiviral used for chemotherapy was Ribavirin (0 and25μg/l).The result of RT-PCR using universal primers MJ showed that four varieties(GMP3from Bogor, PS864 and PSJT941 from Pati, andCening from Cirebon) were infected by Poty virus. Based on RT-PCR assay with specific primer, four other varieties (PS862 from Cirebon, PS881 from Jember, PSJK922 from Malang, and Kentung from Bogor) were infected by SCSMV. All of meristems were able to regenerate to form shoots. The use of Ribavirin(25μg/l) did not decrease the growth rate of meristems and the shoots of all of the varieties could be multipied compared to control where the shoots could not be multiplied in all varieties. The application of meristem culture technique was not able to eliminate the SCSMV, but when it was combined with chemotherapy treatment, the SCSMV virus could be eliminated with the efficacy rate of 44.4%.

Assessment of Kenaf Germplasm Against Fusarium oxysporum Schletch

Supriyono, Titiek Yulianti

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO.Box 199, Malang
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Accepted : September 18 2015; revised: August 25 2016; approved : September 14 2016


One of the important disease that very detrimental to kenaf is Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of 70 kenaf germplasms accessions against F. oxysporum. The study was conducted at the Phytopatology Laboratory and screen house of Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute, Malang using completely randomized design with three replicates. Seventy accessions and one resistant accession as control (1267 (BG-52-135) were used in this study. Inoculation of Fusarium was done 7 days after sowing (das) by sprinkling 100 ml of spore suspension into the soil. Observation of disease intensity started at 10–40 days after inoculation (dai) and repeated every five days. Percentage of stalk discolorization was estimated at 50 dai. The results showed that accession 1040 (FJ/017) had the lowest disease intensity (0.83%), hence was categorized as a highly resitant accession. Fourteen accessions were categorized as resistant with disease intensity below or equal to 10%; 28 accessions were moderate resistant; and 27 accessions were susceptible. FJ/017 (the highset resistant accession) and 14 resis-tant accessions (1064(SUC/012), 1061(SRB/082), 1035(FJ/005), 839(PARC/2709), 955(FJ/003), 842(PARC/ 2712), 1095(SUC/003), 838PARC/2708), 957(FJ/007), 1065(SUC/023), 1042(CHN/056), 145(BL/118), 1036 (FJ/006), dan 778(PARC/2466)) could be used as resistant genetic sources in developing new varieties.

Optimum Condition of Castor Oil Vulcanization With Sulphur on High Quality Brown Factice Formation

Santi Puspitasari1, Eva Lilis Nurgilis2, Zulhan Arif2

1Pusat Penelitian Karet, Jalan Salak Nomor 1 Bogor16151Jawa Barat Indonesia
2Departemen Kimia, FMIPA, IPB,Kampus IPB Darmaga BogorJawa Barat
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Accepted  : April 7 2016; revised : June 23 2016; approved : September 14 2016


Manufacture of rubber goods is began with rubber compounding by mixing therubber with its chemicals including processing aids. The function of processing aids is to facilitate the compounding process. Brown factice from vulcanization of vegetable oil with sulphur, is the most processing aid being usedin downstream rubber industry. During vulcanization, the triglyceride content on vegetable oil formcrosslink which is bridged by sulphur. The research was aimed to determinethe optimum condition of brown factice formation at laboratory scale (200 ml/batch) from castor oil which was reacted with various sulphur concentration (23 and 24 pho) and themperature of reaction (150oC, 160oC, dan 170oC). The determination of optimum condition wasbased on brown factice characteristic such physical visualization and chemical properties. The result showed that theoptimum reaction condition wasgained at themperature reaction of 150oC and sulphur concentration of 24 pho. By those condition, the brown factice had 52.43% extract acetone content, 1.20% free sulphur content, 0.11% ash content and pH 6.45 and crosslink density as 3.2 x 10-4mol/ml. The brown factice also had good brown color and elastic texture. Based on its properties, the brown factice achieved was feasible to be developed at higher scale.

The Suitability of Sugarcane Varietiesin MaturityRates with Land TipologyClassificationof Heavy Soil Texture, Rainfed,and Good Drainage

Prima Diarini Riajaya, Fitriningdyah Tri Kadarwati

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199 Malang
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Accepted : August 28 2016; revised : December 2 2016; approved : December 19 2016


Sugar cane is one of the strategic plantation crops associated with the fulfillment of sugar. At present various types of ripening sugarcane varieties can be found on the same land typology, so the potential productivity of a variety would be difficult to achieve on a typology that is not appropriate. The suitability of sugarcane varieties with different maturity types need to be checked with appropriate land typology. The research was conducted in East Gili, Kamal, Bangkalan on the land typology of heavy soil texture (B), the rainfed (H), and good drainage (L) or BHL started in October 2014 to September 2015. The field research was designed using a Randomized Block Design (RAK) with five replications with 8 varieties treatments namely PS 881 (early maturity), Cenning, PSJK 922 and PS 882 (middle early maturity); KK, VMC 76-16, PSDK 923 and BL (middle late maturity). Sugarcane stalks with 2-3 buds of each variety were planted per plot at 135 cm row spacing. Suitability of sugarcane varieties with different maturity types with land tipology showed that early maturity sugarcane varieties planted at the right time produced the similar productivity with late maturity varieties on lands with BHL tipology with a ranges of productivity 92.98 to 109.28 tons/ha. Sugarcane varieties with early maturity to mid early maturity of sugarcane produced 93-96 tons/ha using PS 881, Cenning, and PSJK 922, and varieties with mid late to late maturity produced 92-109 tonnes/ha using VMC-7616, PSDK 923, and BL. High sugar yields were produced by early variety of 8.46 tonnes/ha (PS 881), mid early variety of 8.66 tonnes/ha (PSJK 922), mid late variety of 9,40 tonnes/ha (PSDK 923). Cane harvesting was done based on the optimum maturity, in the study site (Bangkalan, Madura) cane varieties with early to middle early maturty reached the optimal maturity at the crop age of 9 months and 9.5 months in middle late maturity. Thus the land tipology of BHL recommended the use of sugarcane varieties with early to mid late maturity. This information can be used as a basis for the implementation of the planting management of sugarcane varieties. Selection of high yielding varieties and ratooning ability and appropriate to the local environment is highly recommended.

Physiological Responses of Sugarcane Plant to Drought


Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199 Malang
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


National sugarcane production is often inhibited by drought problem. The objective of this review is to discuss research findings on physiological responses of sugarcane to drought as a base for genetic and cultivation management. Through this review drought tolerance breeding activities and cultivation technology for mitigationimpact will be coped with more effectively. Drought influencesesimportant physiological activities from stomata closure to minimize transpiration, reducing carbon dioxide input, chlorophylland nettphotosynthesis. Plant roots respond to drought througoutbiosynthesis and send signalto abscisic acid (ABA) for closing stomata to reduce transpiration and CO2 absorption. Drought reduces chlorophyll a, b, and a/b ratio. Reducing photosynthesis rate and other physiological activities inhibit sugarcanegrowth, and finally sugar productivity. Drought tolerance genotype hasabilityto minimize these negative impacts. The most lost productivity caused by drought is taking place during elongation phase, especially stalk elongation. Ripening phase requires least water, but it is very important to sucrose accumulation. Concentration of osmoprotectant compounds, which helps to cope with increasing cell osmosis potential on drought tolerance plant genotypes, increases during drought condition, however, it is high during drought, especially in tolerance genotype, Osmoprotectant compounds are amino acid, sugar, or quartenary ammonium, such as proline, trehalosa, and glicine betain. Other compounds for plant tolerance to drought is compatible solute which has low molecular weight, high solable, and nontoxic cytosolic. Understanding on biosynthesis and function of osmoprotectant are required as a base for further research on drought tolerance mechanism and managing drought especially in biotechnology plant breeding, conventional, and producttion of osmoprotectant for exogenous application.


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