Volume 6, No. 1, April 2014

Institutional Performance of Sugar Agribusiness in South Sulawesi

Nurdiah Husnah, Peter Tandisau, Herniwati, Fadjry Djufry

Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology of South Sulawesi 
Perintis Kemerdekaan Street, Makassar
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Accepted : November 22 2012 approved : January 15 2014

Abstract

Institutions in the sugar agribusiness is efforts to increase the quality of life of farmers, which is achieved through technology investment, the development of labor productivity, the development of the economy, as well as arrangement of human and natural resources. The main problems associated with sugar agribusiness, namely: (1) productivity tends to decline due in part because the application of the technology on farm and factory efficiency of sugar mill is low, (2) increasing sugar imports, (3) the price of domestic sugar unstable due to the inefficient distribution system, and (4) the utilization of institutional support agribusiness. Viewed from various aspects, such as the potential resources, the direction of national development policies, domes-tic market potential for the products of agribusiness, South Sulawesi has the prospect to develop the sugar agribusiness system. The results showed that the sugar agribusiness system includes multiple subsystems consisting of upstream subsystems, on farm subsystems, and downstream subsystem. Those support agri-business institutions that each have a role and as a system, which can not be separated from each other, merge with each other and mutually related. Integrally, related to the plantation sector in the industrial sec-torona frame of upstream as well as downstream, would create the conditions foreconomic growth nationally.


Suitability Test of Cotton Lines with Okra Leaves Intercropped with Soybean

Prima Diarini Riajaya dan Fitriningdyah Tri Kadarwati

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199, Malang

Accepted : July 5 2013 Approved : January 15 2014

Abstract

Cotton lines with okra-leaves may have a potential yield increase in intercropping systems, yet the compati-bility of these cotton okra lines have not been quantified. Field research was conducted in Malang (East Java)from April to September 2011.  The purpose of this study was to test the suitability of cotton lines with okra-leaves in intercropping systems with soybean. The plant material used was 4 cotton lines of okra leaves and 2 normal leaf cotton varieties. The cotton tested were: 98031/1/7, 98039/6, 98040/3, 98048/2, Kanesia 8, and Kanesia 10. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design withthree replications. Para-metersobserved in the cotton plant werethe plant height, canopy width, number of monopodial and simpo-dial branches, as well as the number of boll per plant every two weeks from 60–120 days after planting. Boll weight, harvestedboll number, the cotton seed, soybean yield were observed at harvest. The soybean para-meters observed were crop height and canopy width. The results showed that cotton line with okra leaves 98048/2 was suitable in intercropping with soybean with cotton yield 1888 kg/ha (67.3% of cotton potensial yield) and soybean yield 1,492 kg/ha, and LER=1.3. Cotton and soybean yield loss were33% and 39%, res-pectively under intercropping compared to their yields under monoculture. Cotton yield under monoculture was 2,837 kg/ha with 101.06% of its potensial yield. Soybean yield loss were higher when intercropped with normal leaf cotton (45–47%) than okra leaf (36–44%).


Potency of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolates Based on Phosphatase Activity

Farida Rahayu, Mastur, dan Budi Santoso

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199, Malang

Diterima: 5 Juli 2013 Disetujui: 3 Maret 2014

Abstract

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth, because it plays an important role in many metabolisms activities. Plants obtain P from soil solution as anion. However, phosphate anions are very reactive and can be immobilized through precipitation with Al, Fe, Mg, and Ca. In these form, phosphate is insoluble and unavailable to plants. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) plays important role in dynamics and availability of P in soil. So, the potency of PSB isolates which were explored from sugarcane soil of East Java might be important to be identified. Identification based on activity of phosphatase enzyme was conducted from January–December 2012 in Bioprocessing Laboratory Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute, Malang. The aim was to explore and select PSB based on their ability to dissolve of P. Isolation of PSB was collected from sugar cane land of East Java included Sidoarjo, Blitar, Kediri, Malang, Lumajang, Bondowoso and Situbondo. Among 65 bacterial isolates, 22 bacterial isolates were potentially as PSB. After a further test, we obtained 9 isolate had high enzyme activities, ie. SD-10, BL-1, KD-5, ML-2 and LJ II-3 had phosphatase activity on the first day, whereas LJ I-3 dan BD-2 had an activity at the second day, while SD-7 and BL-4 had largest diameter of clear zones. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolate is expected to increase improve availability of P in the soil, quality and development of plants.


The Planning of Tobacco-Based Sustainable Dry Land Farming System at Progo Hulu Sub-Watershed (Temanggung Regency, Central Java Province)

Jaka Suyana

Soil Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Sebelas Maret University of Surakarta
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Accepted : April 24 2013 Approved : February 10 2014

Abstract

Due to inadequate soil and water conservation practices in farming activity at tobacco based farming sys-tems, severe erosion and land degradation had been occuring in almost all upland agriculture in Progo Hulu Sub-watershed. This research was conducted: (1) to study land’s biophysic conditions and the characteris-tics of tobacco based farming systems, (2) to study and analyze the impact of various soil and water conser-vation practices on erosion, (3) to study and design sustainable conservation farming systems in tobacco based farming systems. This research by using a survey method, field experiments, and laboratory analysis.

Data characteristics of land, farm characteristics, surface run off and erosion by using descriptive analyzed and followed by analysis of variance (F test) and 5% HSD test. The development of agrotechnology recom-mendations formulated by simulation techniques using program Powersim Version 2.5 d. The results showed that land use in tobacco-based farming systems at Progo-Hulu sub-watershed was generally (58.4%) suitable to its land capability and 41.6% were not suitable. The predicted erosion on approximately 77.2% of lands were higher than local tollerable soil loss which need improvement of soil and water conservation techniques. Tobacco based farming systems was dominated by maize-tobacco (51.0%) and chili-tobacco (29.2%) cropping patterns; farmers income on this farming systems were higher than the income that can support worthed life living standard. The application of crop residue (tobacco stems) as mulch with rate of 7 tones/ha and 14 tones/ha combined with grassed bench terraces ((Setaria spacelata) reduced erosion as much as 15–19% and 31–43%, respectively. Meanwhile, red bean-tobacco intercropping combined with crop residue mulch of 7 tones/ ha had suppressed erosion 13–20%. Sustainable tobacco-based farming systems could be developed in this area by practicing improved soil and water conservation technologies with: (a) setaria grass to strengthen terraces + 7 tones/ha of crop residue mulch or red bean and tobacco intercropping + 7 tones/ha of crop residue mulch on 8–15% slope; (b) broad base terraces + adequate slit pit on 15–30% slope; and (c) setaria grass to strengthen broadbase terraces + 14 ton/ha of crop residue mulch + adequate slit pit on >30% slope.


Potency and Prospect of Physic Nut Seeds for Substitution for Stove Fuel in Villager Households

Abi Dwi Hastono

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199, Malang

Accepted : October 30 2013 approved : January 15 2014

Abstract

Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) has been recommendedas one of a new and renewable energy source. Uti-lization of physic nut seeds as an energy source in Indonesian villages has not been intensively published.  This review is aimed to discuss a possibility of the utilization of existed jatropha seeds existing in some vi-llages for household stove as a substitute for kerosene or LPG.  The stove using jatropha seed was designed by Balittas and prospective to be applied to fulfill the cooking need at household level in the village. The seed supply could be obtained from the existing jatropha plants by applying cultural practices to get the seed pro-duction as much as needed for cooking.  The use of jatropha seed stove (capacity 600 g; consumption 300 g/h, heat production around 420oC would substitute or replace the use of LPG and/or fire woods the villagers usually used by 20% and 35%, respectively.


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East Java, Indonesia
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