Volume 5 No.2, Oktober 2013

Economic Analysis of Sugar Cane Intensive Cultivation: Case Study at Purbalingga Region, Central Java

M. Syakir, S. Deciyanto, dan S. Damanik

Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development
Tentara Pelajar Street no. 1, Bogor

Accepted : February 19 2013 Approved : August 2 2013

Abstract

 Increasing productivity of sugar cane would give a direct impact on increasing farmer income, as well as farmer motivation. Case study in dry land sugar cane plantation at Lambur Village, Mrebet District of Pur-balingga Region was aimed to show the effect of intensive, semi-intensive, and non-intensive cultivation to economic value of sugar cane. Result of this study showed that intensive planting cane cultivation of sugar cane by applicating cow manure 5 ton per ha, sufficient irrigation, with overlapping planting system, and old leaves detrashing, as well as implemented extensification aid program, was achieving approximately 150 tons productivity of Bululawang sugar cane variety, with rendement level of 7.16%. This was giving farmer income Rp32.38 million per ha. While semi-intensive cultivation of sugarcane (without cow manure) was yielding 100 ton sugar cane, by the same level of rendement and was giving Rp16.45 million per ha. How-ever, non-intensive sugar cane (without irrigation, without cow manure, end to end planting system) only achieved 45–75 ton sugar cane per ha. The last implementation also showed that the use of an-organic fer-tilizer without organic ferlizer was not an optimal productivity of dry land sugarcane at this area. Besides, the 45 ton yield of sugar cane would cause detriment of Rp2.78 million per ha. B/C ratio of intensive, semi inten-sive, non-intensive1, and non-intensive2 cultivations, were 1,68; 1,44; 1,25; and 0,89 respectively. To imple-ment the use of organic fertilizer on farmer’s fields are suggested for group of farmers, where their planta-tion is closed from sugar manufacture, to have cooperation and collaboration in using organic waste material as blothong of the manufacture for fertilizing their farms. Meanwhile for those that are far from the sugar manufacture, are suggested to rear cow and using the cow manure for fertilize their plantation.


Effectiveness of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Steinernema sp. to Achaea janata L., The Leaf Eater of Castor (Ricinus communis)

Heri Prabowo dan I Gusti Ayu Agung Indrayani

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199, Malang

Accepted : January 7 2013 approved : April 30 2013

Abstract

High intensity of chemical pesticide application has become a serious concern of environmentalists in recent years, because of various negative impacts of it. Therefore, environmentally friendly techniques of controlling insect pest are needed. Recently, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes, especially Steinernema sp., has created new possibilities of promising control techniques against insect pests. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Steinernema sp. to A. janata larvae in laboratory. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Pathology Laboratory of Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Insti-tute from March to August 2011. Tests used the 2nd stage larvae of Achaea janata, the leaf eater of castor (Ricinus communis). Treatment arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replicates. For each test used 25 larvae which were exposed to various concentrations of Steinernema sp. Concentration of Steinernema sp. used was 0, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 infective juvenile/larvae. Daily mortality A. janata larvae, larval and pupal weight, the number of eggs laid, and number of hatch eggs were recorded. Steinernema sp. on concentration of 200; 300; and 400 IJ/larvae was effective to cause mortality of A. janata larvae (80–94% mortality after 48–120 hours). The higher the concentration of the nematode the higher larval mortality. Steinernema sp. with concentration of 400 IJ/ larvae was effective decreasing larval and pupal weight, the number of eggs laid, and fertility of the eggs produced.


Effect of intercropping on growth and yield of rehabilitated physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.)

Sri Mulyaningsih dan Budi Hariyono

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199, Malang

Accepted : February 5 2013 approved : August 23 2013

Abstract

In young jatropha plantation (1–2 years aged) with 2 m x 2 m spacing there is fallow land. The effort to optimize of land use was by planting intercrops, so that the farmers get income before the jatropha plant produce. This study aimed to determine the effect of intercrops on growth and yield of jatropha and get suitable intercrops in the jatropha rehabilitated plantation (by grafting) in the third year. Research was conducted at Muktiharjo Research Station, Pati, Central Java from January to December 2011. The experiment was arranged in randomized block design with 6 replications. Treatments were 1) intercropping physic nut + peanut, 2) intercropping physic nut + soybean, 3) intercropping physic nut + mungbean, 4) intercropping physic nut + sesame, and 5) physic nut monoculture. Plot size was 8 m x 8 m, plant distance of physic nut were 2 m x 2 m, and plant distances for peanut, soybean, and mungbean were 25 cm x 25 cm and for sesame was 50 cm x 25 cm. Result showed that intercropping was not significantly effect on seed yield of physic nut, however intercropping physic nut with peanut decreased the physic nut seed yield. Seed yield of intercropping physic nut + soybean 655.87 kg/ha + 1,316.07 kg/ha; physic nut + mungbean 644.70 kg/ha + 1,557.55 kg/ha; physic nut + sesame 511.49 kg/ha + 1,416.67 kg/ha; physic nut + peanut 358.31 kg/ha + 1,015.28 kg/ha; and physic nut monoculture 602.27 kg/ha. Intercropping physic nut with four kinds of intercrop plant (peanut, soybean, mungbean, and sesame), efficient land use and economically viable for the grown and developed along with physic nut rehabilitation third year with the value of each land equi-valent ratio (LER) 1.32; 1.64; 1.98; 1.72 intercropping and B/C ratio 4.79; 1.88; 5.71; and 7.03.


Water Stress Effects on Physiology Characters of Temanggung Tobacco and Its Relation with Dry Slice Yield and Nicotine Content

Djumali and Sri Mulyaningsih

Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute
Karangploso, PO. Box 199, Malang

Accepted : October 12 2013 Approved : August 2 2013

Abstract

Temanggung tobacco is grown at the end of wet season which so often experience water stress. Water stress can decrease dry slice yield and nicotine content. The study was aimed to determine the effect of water stress on physiological characteristics of temanggung tobacco and its relation to dry slice yield and nicotine content. Research was conducted in greenhouse of Indonesian Sweetener and Fibre Crops Research Institute, Malang from March to October 2010 using splitplot design and repeated three times. The main plot consisted of three types of soil (Complex Eutrudepts-Hapludalfs, Complex Dystrudepts-Hapludalfs, and Vitraquands). The Subplot consisted of five soil moisture levels (60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% of field capacity). The results showed that water stress on the third series of the soil negatively affect stomatal conductivity, the photosynthesis rate, dry slice yield and nicotine content, as well as the positive effect on specific leaf weight. Effect of water stress on dry slice yield occurred through the decrease of stomata conductivity and photosynthetic rate during the phase after topping. The effect of water stress on nicotine content occurred through a reduction in stomatal conductivity before flowering and after topping, decrease of photosynthetic rate after topping, and increase of specific leaf weight after topping.


Prospect of Extract of Tobacco leaf for Botanical Nematicide

Wiratno, Siswanto, I.M. Trisawa

 

Accepted : November 22 2013 approved : August 2 2013

Abstract

Botanical nematicide is one type of natural pesticide, which is currently being studied for its role in the control of nematodes. This nematicide is safer for the environment and living organisms as the active ingredient de-rived from secondary metabolite of plants is biodegradable. Utilization of this compound as active ingredients of botanical nematicide is based on naturally used as a mean of self-protection against pests and diseases. One plant that potentially to be used as nematicide is tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Tobacco leaves extract is able to kill the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values are 1.9 and 3.6 mg extract/ml of water, respectively. Body of the dead nematodes exposed by this extract shows curly shape similar to that of exposed by an organophosphate and carbamate groups, which acts as acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Meanwhile the body of naturally dead nematode shows straight shape. This phenomenon can be used as an indicator to detect the mode of action of plant secondary metabolite compounds that have not been widely known. This paper would discuss about possibility of using extracted tobacco leaf as botanical nematicide, and also alternatife of tobacco diversification usage except cigarette.


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